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Toast, which is said to have originated in England but is the most popular in Asia, is probably one of the most classic sweet breads.
Compared to other breads, its soft and delicate texture and the ability to vary the flavours through the ingredients and eat them in a variety of ways make it stand up to the masses of foodies.
Then again, often the simpler something is, the less likely it is to be done well.
A term that is often used in conjunction with toast is probably “glove film”, which means that the dough is kneaded to the fully extended stage.
While most breads are kneaded to about 90%, toast needs to be kneaded to 100% to strengthen the gluten’s ability to wrap around the gas in order for it to grow taller. So if you can get good at toast, you can learn the rest of the bread in minutes.
This time, the toast is made by the most common direct method, with two fermentations and two rolls. To make successful toast, these three points are crucial-
- Raw material
- Selection of high-gluten flour / High gluten flour, also known as bread flour, is generally used for toast with a protein content above 13%. A good toast flour not only has a high gluten protein content, but also has a high water absorption rate.
- Baking percentage of water at 60% or more / The water here refers to the amount of water in all the liquid ingredients. The common liquid ingredients have 90% water content in milk, 60% in light cream and 75% in eggs. If a 16 oz toast has 1.7 oz of eggs and 4.1 oz of water, then the water content is 1.3 + 4.1 = 5.4 oz, and dividing 5.4 oz by 8.8 oz (the weight of the flour) equals 61%. The advantage of a high water content is that gluten is easily produced, making the toast easier to expand and the finished product softer and more delicate.
The degree of gluten production can be divided into stages 60 to 100%. To make toast, we need to know how to judge between the extended stage and the fully extended stage. Add the butter at the extended stage and stop in time to avoid over-kneading at the fully extended stage.
When the room is very hot, it is important to control the dough temperature to not exceed 30℃, otherwise problems such as melted butter and premature yeast fermentation will easily occur and eventually the dough will become increasingly wet and sticky and will not pull out the glove film. I will write more about how to avoid high dough temperatures in the following section.
The fermentation of bread is generally divided into primary and secondary fermentation. As everyone’s fermentation environment is different, it only depends on the state of fermentation and not the time.
But I’ll give you a reference time. My room temperature was 28°C and humidity 70%, so primary fermentation took 1 hour and secondary fermentation took an hour and 20 minutes.
The most suitable temperature for a fermentation is 28℃ and the humidity is 75%.
Generally, it should be above 25℃ at room temperature. The easiest way is to put the dough in a container and cover it with plastic wrap to prevent it from drying out. This is also convenient for us to observe the volume.
When the volume of the dough has doubled, dip your fingers in dry flour and insert it into the dough. After the fingers are removed, the dough will neither collapse nor rebound, indicating that the fermentation is in place. If the dough rebounds immediately, it means that it needs to continue to ferment, and if the dough collapses, it means that it is over-fermented.
The environment for secondary fermentation is a temperature of 38℃ and 85% humidity. If you don’t have a fermenting oven, use the oven fermentation function and put a bowl of hot water in it. The purpose of this is to increase the humidity and to ensure that the temperature inside the oven does not exceed 40℃, otherwise the yeast will lose its activity.
If the oven does not have a fermenting function, you can also use a large airtight container and put a bowl of hot water in it to do the same, but change the hot water regularly. If making mountain-shaped toast without a lid, ferment to 90% of the mould’s full capacity, and for square toast with a lid, ferment to 80% full.
In addition to judging by volume, you can also gently press the dough with your fingers. If the dough has marks and does not spring back or springs back slowly, the secondary fermentation is in place.
Most common problems with toast making –
- The more you knead the dough, the more wet and sticky it becomes
R. Dough temperature is too high
A. Turn on the air conditioning when the room is warm, use chilled water with the eggs and tie an ice pack to the mixing bowl of the chef’s machine
R. Dough with too much water content
A. If your flour has too little water absorption, it is not very suitable for making toast and you will have to replace it with a high quality flour; if too much liquid has been added, reduce the amount of liquid.
- No swelling up
R. The dough is not kneaded properly
A. Knead the dough until it is fully extended.
R. Fermentation not in place
A. Make sure the dough reaches the specified height for the second fermentation.
R. Water content is too low
A. Increase the liquid ingredients, change the flour if the water absorption rate is not good.
- Shrunken waist collapse
R. Insufficient baking time
A. increase the baking time
R. Out of the oven does not shock the hot air
A. Immediately shake two times on the table, and then immediately take off the mold, so that the heat is dispersed
R. Insufficient gluten
A. Fully knead the dough to the complete stage, so that the dough produces enough gluten to support the toast.
- The skin is too thick or the toast is too dry
R. Baking temperature is too low and the time is too long
A. Generally bake with about 180 degrees for 35 minutes, the oven has a temperature difference of their own to adjust properly.
- Recipe Information
Baking / Preheat to 200°C, bake at 170°C on top and 180°C on bottom, lower oven level, 37 minutes, depending on the temperature difference in your oven.
Mould / 16 oz toast box.
Serving size / 3-6 people.
Storage / Sealed at room temperature for 3 days, frozen for 1 month.
- Raw materials
- 8.8 oz of high gluten flour.
- 1 oz of fine sugar, 30 g of
- Salt 0.1 oz.
- Unsalted butter 0.7 oz.
- Highly active dry yeast 0.1 oz.
- Egg 1
- Milk powder 0.4 oz.
- Water 4.1 oz (chilled)
Add the dry ingredients to the mixing bowl and mix well with a whisk.
Mix the water and eggs together, reserving 5% of the water for adjustment and adding more later depending on the softness of the dough.
Add the wet ingredients to the dry ingredients and mix with a spatula to form the dough pieces.
Turn on the cooker on a low speed and mix into a dough.
Once the dough has formed, turn the cooker to medium speed and mix.
When the dough leaves the bottom of the bowl and taps the wall, a very thin film can be pulled out and the holes are jagged, this is the extension stage.
Add the butter and mix with the chef’s machine on low speed first to form a dough.
The dough is fully extended until it leaves the bottom of the bowl again and taps the wall, lifting the chef’s machine the dough hangs completely on the mixing hook and pulls out an even and tough film with a very rounded opening for long, thin noodles.
Dough hanging mixing hook
Knead and place in a fermenter
The dough is ready when it has doubled in size and is neither collapsing nor springing back when inserted into the dough with a floured finger. At this point, remove the dough and press to deflate it, working from the centre to the sides in an intensive manner (as opposed to a loaf of bread).
Finger with flour inserted
Press to vent
Divide the dough into three equal portions, about 5.6 oz a piece, and let it rest for 15 minutes, covered with cling film to prevent it from drying out.
Dividing the dough
Cover with cling film and leave to stand
Roll out the dough twice, allowing it to relax for 10 minutes after the first roll, using the palm of your hand to get rid of any air bubbles around the edges as you roll it out.
Rolling and pressing
First roll up
Press the edge to vent
Second roll up
Roll it up about 2 to 3 times, then place it in the same spiral direction in the toast box for a second fermentation.
If you don’t have a fermenter, you can use the oven fermentation function and put a bowl of hot water (about 80 to 100℃) in it, changing the hot water once in between.
Place in mould
Place in fermenter for secondary fermentation
Preheat the oven to 200°C. When the dough is 90% full (80% with the lid), remove it from the oven and gently press the surface of the dough with your index finger, it will have marks that will slowly spring back (or not), then the fermentation is ready.
Brush the toast lightly with the egg wash, be careful not to brush too much onto the sides, otherwise the sides will come out really ugly, haha~.
Secondary fermentation to 90% full
Brush with egg wash
For toast with lid, 35 minutes at 180°C on top and bottom, without lid 37 minutes at 170°C on top and 180°C on bottom
Cover with tin foil after about 10 minutes in the oven to prevent the tops from burning.
Cover with tin foil
Remove from the oven, shake vigorously to remove the heat and cool on its side on a cooling rack, which should take at least 1 hour.
Cool completely and store in an airtight container. Cut before eating to prevent moisture loss. Store at room temperature for up to 3 days, or longer if frozen, but do not refrigerate as this will accelerate the ageing of the bread.
Soft and delicate
Perfect with jam
No matter what kind of bread you make, the key is to master the kneading and fermentation techniques.
Timexing hopes this post will help you
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