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How to Make Croissants with 45% 50% 55% Moisture Content Tastier?

The butter is wrapped in the dough and the layers are folded in an interlocking manner. When heated, the fat melts into a greasy film under the heat.
A croissant that tests the basic skills of the baker is now complete.

Croissants are usually made in a range of 45% to 55% moisture content for everyday production. At the same time, we have observed that in other countries, especially in artisan bakeries, where taste and technique are the key ingredients, croissants are beginning to be made with a higher moisture content.

How do you make a croissant that has a good taste and how do you choose a croissant that meets the market expectations?

In this article, we explain the differences between the stages of croissants with different water contents, and explain the difficulties and points of croissant making in a step-by-step manner.

  • The Forming Principle of Croissant

The crispness of the croissant and the holes inside come from the evaporation of water vapour from the interior under the effect of high temperatures, which opens up possible gaps for the fat to penetrate the protein structure inside the dough.

The support of the croissant comes from the trade-off between the starchy backbone and the right amount of water.

Too little water makes the dough dry and age relatively quickly, too much water makes the croissant less supportive and the recipe needs to be adjusted to reconfigure the dough.

Steps for Making Croissants

  1. Flour type T-45 35.3 oz
  2. Young caster sugar 3.5 oz
  3. Fresh yeast 1.6 oz
  4. Milk powder 1.1 oz
  5. Salt 0.6 oz
  6. Water 15.9 oz/ 17.6 oz/ 19.4 oz
  7. Butter 60g/ Old French pasta 7.1 oz

Doughs with a moisture content of less than 45% are difficult to form and beat, so 45% is the conventional minimum.

Operation steps


Add all ingredients of the recipe to the mixer and blend on slow speed for 5-8 minutes
Turn to medium speed and mix until 8 to 9 % al dente.

When mixing: room temperature (26 to 28 ℃) humidity (70% to 80%) final dough temperature (24 to 26 ℃)


Room temperature (26-28 °C) humidity (70% to 80%) 15-20 minutes for basic fermentation.

Roll out and flatten the dough into the freezer
Refrigerate at -18°C for 12/h.
Wrap the flaky butter into the thawed dough and fold it 4 times.

Transfer the folded dough to the freezer and chill for 30-45 minutes.

Transfer the folded dough to the freezer and chill for 30-45 minutes.
Remove the chilled dough and roll it out until it is 11.4 inch in length and 40-45mm thick (the length depends on the size of the dough.)

Cut the dough into 3.9 inch*11 inch triangles, weighing 75-80g/pc.

Stretch the cut croquettes slightly and chill them in the fridge for 30 minutes (chilling temperature 3 to 4°C)

Take the dough out and shape it into a curved moon ram’s horn and brush the top with egg wash for a final rise.

Fermentation temperature (28 °C) Fermentation humidity (75-85%) Fermentation time (1.5-2/h)


Baking temperature air oven 175 °C Baking time 16 to 18 minutes
Baking temperature in a flat oven 220 °C on top and 175 degrees on the bottom Baking time 24-25 minutes


Colour* As you can see from the baking chart above, those with a moisture content of 50% to 55% have a brighter colour, while those with 45% are a little duller.

Firmness*  The higher the water content, the better the firmness.

Taste & flavour* The higher the water content, the more moist and creamy the taste.The lower the water content, the crisper the crust.

  • An Explanation of the Difficulties of Making Croissants

  • The less water the dough has, the better the layers will be
    The more water the dough contains, the more difficult it is to work with, the less pronounced the layers are, but the more moist the texture.
  • The main difficulty – the dough has to be soft and the fat has to be soft and firm to reach a point of harmony
    Softness of the dough: Refrigerate the frozen dough to -5 to 0°C and press it with your fingers.

Soften the grease at room temperature and roll out to shape, then refrigerate and freeze until the butter is slightly firm and can be moved by finger pressure.
At this point the butter temperature is 10-12 °C.
The wrapping is done when the above two points are met.

  • In general* we encounter a variety of problems in the process of shortening and greasing, mastering the softness of the dough and grease, controlling the overall wetness of the dough (to ensure adequate adhesion of the dough during the folding process)

If you control the details of the process and the temperature of the environment, you will have a much lower record of failure.

Well Done
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